Congratulations to Ellen MacDougall

cl_pg-ellenmacdougall2Congratulations to Ellen MacDougall, who passed her PhD viva recently.

Ellen’s thesis is an original analysis of how figural representations of foreign peoples and places featured on Roman coinage between their earliest extant appearance in 138 B.C. and the death of Domitian in 96 A.D.  This long formative period has been traditionally overlooked by scholars, who have focused on later material. Based on an extensive body of material, Ellen’s thesis provides a close study of late Republican and early imperial practice, revealing a much more complex and nuanced picture of how foreign peoples and places were represented on Roman coinage at a time of great historical change. The breadth of coverage and the innovative methodology adopted – paying special attention to the historical context of production of the different types – makes her thesis an important contribution to our understanding of Roman numismatics, art, and history between the end of the Republic and the beginning of the Empire.


PhD entry (2018) under SGSAH scheme

The School of Classics at the University of St Andrews encourages applications for PhD entry in September 2018 under the SGSAH (Scottish Graduate School for Arts and Humanities) scheme.

The SGSAH is run by a consortium of eight Scottish universities. Students from the UK and the rest of the EU are eligible for scholarships. Successful applicants will benefit from fees, stipend (UK residents only) and significant additional funding for their doctoral training. Students from EU countries other than the UK are eligible for a fees-only award; the UK government has confirmed that the funding award, for EU students starting in 2018, will cover the duration of their course, even if the UK leaves the EU in that period.

The first step is to apply for the PhD programme at St Andrews. The deadline for applications to Classics at St Andrews under the SGSAH scheme is  20 DECEMBER 2017, but candidates are encouraged to contact potential supervisors as soon as possible in order to leave time to refine the application to the SGSAH.

The University of St Andrews has various additional sources of funding for PhD students:

  • Wolfson Postgraduate Scholarships, the deadline for which is 15 November 2017.
  • St Leonards Interdisciplinary PhD scholarships. These are for projects involving more than one School at St Andrews. To be considered for this award you should submit a PhD application by 5 November 2017.
  • St Leonards Scholarships (International Fees). These will cover the difference between home and international fees. To be considered for this award you should submit a PhD application by 25 January 2018.

For each of the three schemes above the first step is to apply for a PhD place at St Andrews.

Further sources of funding will be announced later in the academic year.

We invite potential applicants to consult individual members of staff about their proposed research topics.

For more information on the School’s research visit

For enquiries, please contact Dr Alex Long (Director of PG Studies, or Professor Jason König (Head of School,

Congratulations to Hannah Mace

Hannah MaceCongratulations to Hannah Mace, who passed her PhD viva recently.

Hannah’s thesis is on the fourth century CE Latin astronomer, Firmicus Maternus. Hannah had already developed considerable expertise in Latin astronomical writing (such as Manilius and Ausonius) from her Undergraduate and Masters degrees. In her thesis, she explores Firmicus’ text to illuminate intellectual culture of the mid fourth century – a time when classical texts were being read, copied, redeployed, and canonised against a backdrop of the emerging Church. Astronomy/astrology was a particular case in point. Hannah discusses Firmicus’ expertise and his use of earlier writers and, specifically, his citation practice; this is compared with other late antique Latin prose didactic authors to argue that Firmicus had a distinctive, personal agenda.

Congratulations to Steve Nyamilandu

img-20151218-00145Congratulations to Steve Nyamilandu, Lecturer in Latin at Chancellor College, University of Malawi, for passing his PhD, ‘Contextualising Classics Teaching in Malawi: a Comparative Study’. In this work, Steve traces the history of Classics teaching in Malawi before presenting and analysing various measures of the subject’s contemporary health, purpose and reputation; the comparative element in the thesis draws on analysis of similar issues in a wide variety of other institutions, including some in the UK, the USA and Africa, some of which Steve visited in person. Steve was supervised jointly by his home University and the School of Classics at St Andrews, as part of the co-tutelle arrangement between the two Universities; Steve’s study included two spells at Swallowgate, where amongst other things, he was able to research the important contribution to Malawian classics made by the late Robin Ogilvie, Professor of Latin at St Andrews, who served as an academic consultant to Hastings Banda, President of Malawi (1961-1997).

Congratulations to Ana Kotarcic

cl_pg-kotarcic-150x199Ana Kotarcic will receive her PhD on 30th November. Her thesis (‘Aristotle’s Concept of Lexis – A Theory of Language and Style’) offers an original account of Aristotelian lexis.  She offers new distinctions between the levels at which Aristotle examines lexis, and she explores in their intellectual context Aristotle’s theories of language, dialects and expertly crafted discourse. She then applies her analysis to Aristotle’s account of metaphor. Congratulations, Ana!

Congratulations to Anouk Vermeulen

cl_pg-vermeulen-150x226Congratulations to Anouk Vermeulen on a successful PhD viva this week. Anouk’s dissertation is entitled “Divided Lands, Divided Peoples? A Reconsideration of Roman Land Division, its Practices, Purposes, and Effects”, and discusses the practice of dividing land into roughly regular plots, which were then assigned to farmers – a distinctly Roman way of settling communities and redefining the landscape.

Anouk’s thesis is an original contribution to this important field of studies, developing a methodology that combines landscape archaeology, digital technologies, and spatial analysis in a new approach that allowed her to call into discussion traditional interpretations of Roman settlements.

First, place the mole in the cask…

Bovine weather prediction the Highland way
Bovine weather prediction the Highland way

In 1977 farmer Robin Page, frustrated that “as the weather forecasting service has grown in size and expense, so its predictions seem to have become more inaccurate”, published Weather Forecasting The Country Way. The book, complete with its pleasant little wood engravings, provides ways of predicting the weather by observing natural changes in atmosphere, bird and animal behaviour, flowers, trees and insects. Probably the most widely known of these is:

Red sky at night, shepherd’s/sailor’s* delight;
red sky in the morning, shepherd’s warning

*In this rhyme, shepherds tend to be favoured in the UK, sailors in the US.

By publishing this book, Page was connecting with a predictive tradition that stems far back in to the ancient world.

My research has looked at the history of these ‘weather signs’ in antiquity, how they came to be placed in formalised list structures, and how these lists may have been used. One of the main sources for their ancient existence and organisation is a 4th century BC Greek text called the De Signis, ‘On Signs’, which lists around 300 weather signs, arranged according to the weather they indicate: rain – wind – storms – fair weather. Another significant text is Aratus’ Phaenomena, a poem about astronomy and the weather from the 3rd century BC. Lists of these signs, however, crop up in a whole host of texts including Virgil’s Georgics, Lucan’s Civil War, Pliny’s Natural History, and Aelian’s On Animals.

The variety of signs they contain is impressive. Like Page, they predominantly cite birds and animals, some of which are certainly still around today. One such example is cows sniffing the air indicating rain. This is a sign the existence of which we can trace, through its appearances in texts, right back to our ancient sources:

(1)  It appears in Page in 1977…
(2)  In Richard Inward’s 1864 Weather Lore
(3)  In Digges’ A Prognostication Euerlasting of Ryght Good Effecte in 1555: “bestes…brethyng up to the ayre with open nostrels, rayne folowyth”…
(4)  In the 10th century Byzantine farming text Geoponica
(5)  In Pliny’s Natural History
(6)  In Aratus’ Phaenomena.

Other signs are completely lost to us now, such as the advice given in the De Signis to place a mole (or maybe a wood-cock, the Greek is troublesome) into a cask with some earth and listen to the sound it makes. If anybody knows of any tradition/practice similar to this, I’d love to hear about it!

Despite their volume and prevalence in texts, it is actually not clear how, or indeed whether, these signs were used on a day-to-day basis to make predictions. In the texts, we often find hesitation and caveats associated with them: some signs are known to be better than others; a single weather sign is rarely good enough – two or three are needed; signs can indicate a weather change at an unknown time in the future; spotting many of the signs is accepted as a matter of chance. These issues cast doubt over the possibility of weather signs acting as a stand-alone predictive method. Instead, it is likely that they had a ‘working relationship’ with another method of weather prediction, astrometeorology, which uses the movement of the stars to indicate forthcoming weather. The relationship between these methods has been a fundamental part of my research and it appears that predictions made through weather signs may have been compared against those made by astrometeorology to produce a more rigorous and adaptable system.

Texts that deal with ancient weather prediction (and, indeed, meteorological topics more generally) tend not to be widely-read and as a result there is still plenty of work to be done to try to understand how ancient civilizations predicted, used, and explained the weather.

– Michael Beardmore, PhD, University of St. Andrews