Christopher Smith returns to St Andrews

Christopher Smith, Professor of Ancient History, returns to the University of St Andrews to take up a Leverhulme Major Research Grant after eight highly successful years leading Britain’s largest overseas research institution for humanities and the fine arts, the British School at Rome.

BSR highlights since 2009 include work at dozens of archaeological sites across Italy and the wider Mediterranean basin; the concluding conference and exhibition of the AHRC-funded beacon project Transnationalizing Modern Languages: Mobility, Identity and Translation in Modern Italian Cultures, featuring Derek Duncan (School of Modern Languages); a major international conference, Rome and Persia, with Prof. Ali Ansari (School of History and President of the British Institute for Persian Studies); a joint keynote lecture celebrating the UK’s role in MilanExpo 2014 by Lord Stern, President of the British Academy, and Wolfgang Buttress, award-winning architect of the British pavilion; one of the last public events by Seamus Heaney; and a presentation of William Kentridge’s acclaimed installation on the banks of the Tiber, Triumphs and Laments.

Christopher led a €2million building refurbishment which significantly reduced energy costs in the beautiful but notoriously leaky Lutyens designed building which is home to hundreds of researchers and artists every year, and celebrated the beginning of its second century in 2016 wind- and water-tight for the first time in decades. It won the first Premio Hassan Fathy in 2017, awarded by the Ordine degli Architetti di Roma, for the combination of sustainable technology in listed buildings.

Christopher was from 2012 to 2017 the elected President of the Unione Internazionale degli Istituti di Archeologia Storia e Storia dell’Arte in Roma, the body which represents more than thirty foreign and Italian research institutes. The Unione in this time established an annual festival of culture in Rome, signed a concordat with Italy’s Research Council, the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, and oversaw the creation of a library research portal, URBiS, giving access to over two million books, periodicals, photographs and other items for the study of Rome and Italy from antiquity to the present day.

Christopher has been elected a corresponding member of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, a member of the Association for Studi Etruschi ed Italici, and a member of the Accademia Etrusca di Cortona (founded in 1726!). He has also been elected a member of the Academia Europaea, and in 2017 received from the Mayor of Rome the Premio ‘Cultori di Roma’ , on the 2770th birthday of Rome on the Capitoline Hill.

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Four new appointments in the School of Classics

We are excited to announce the appointment of four new members of staff, all of whom will be joining the School from next academic year.

Michael Carroll has been appointed as Lecturer in Greek Literature. Michael completed his PhD in Cambridge in 2014. He works broadly on classical Greek literature, especially on Aeschylus and Pindar, and has a particular interest in cognitive approaches to ancient culture.

Alexia Petsalis-Diomidis has been appointed as Lecturer in Classics. Alexia works broadly on the Greek literature and material culture of the Hellenistic and Roman periods, with a particular interest in ancient religion. She also works on classical reception in the Ottoman empire in the nineteenth century. She is the author of Truly Beyond Wonders: Aelius Aristides and the Cult of Asklepios (OUP, 2010).

Rebecca Usherwood will be joining the School for two years as Lecturer in Ancient History. Rebecca completed her PhD in Nottingham in 2015. Her work focuses on the political and cultural history of the Roman Empire, especially late antiquity, with a particular interest in the history of political disgrace in the reigns of Constantine and his sons.

Dawn Hollis will join the School from July 2017 for three years as Leverhulme postdoctoral research fellow on the project ‘Mountains in ancient literature and culture and their postclassical reception’. Dawn has recently completed a PhD in the School of History in St Andrews entitled ‘Re-thinking Mountains: Ascents, Aesthetics, and Environment in Early Modern Europe’.

Myles Lavan wins BA/Leverhulme funding for Roman citizenship project

medium (2)Myles Lavan has won a British Academy/Leverhulme Small Research Grant for a project on Roman Citizenship from Hadrian to Alexander Severus  in collaboration with Clifford Ando at the University of Chicago. The project will explore the significance of Roman citizenship before and after Caracalla’s universal grant of 212/213 CE in the light of Myles’ recent work on the scale of enfranchisement before Caracalla. The grant will fund a series of workshops which will bring together researchers with a range of technical and regional expertise to re-examine the significance of citizenship and enfranchisement in different areas of the empire.

Quantifying Enfranchisement in the Roman Empire

Myles Lavan is using analytical techniques from the natural sciences to solve a long-standing problem in the history of the Roman empire.

Rome’s unusual generosity with its citizenship is often cited as a key factor in its success as an imperial power. The incorporation of outsiders figures prominently in the mythical histories that Romans wrote of their own early history, such as the famous story of ‘Romulus’ asylum’ on the Capitoline hill. The first new citizens were freed slaves (where other cities relegated ex-slaves to the status of resident aliens, the Romans made them citizens) and Italians, as the Romans enfranchised immigrants and annexed some conquered territory. But Roman citizens remained a minority of the Italian population up to the first century BCE, when a war between the Romans and their Italian allies – the so-called ‘Social War’ – convinced the Romans to extend citizenship to all of Italy south of the Po. The next step was the enfranchisement of the provinces. Increasing numbers of provincials became Roman citizens by serving in the Roman army, holding magistracies in their own communities or by a special imperial grant to themselves, their family or their city. This process reached its culmination in 212 CE when the otherwise infamous emperor Caracalla granted citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire.

How radical was Caracalla’s grant in 212? (photo: M.-L. Nguyen 2011
How radical was Caracalla’s grant in 212? (photo: M.-L. Nguyen 2011)

The problem is that we still have a very poor sense of the scale of enfranchisement before Caracalla’s grant. Research to date has focussed on identifying Roman and non-Roman names in inscriptions from the provinces. That is a useful way of getting some sense of local differences in the level of enfranchisement, but it has failed to produce a conclusive picture of the situation overall. Some scholars think citizenship was widespread by 212; others think it remained relatively rare; no one will commit to even an approximate percentage. Most probably think the level of enfranchisement is unknowable given the current evidence base and have resigned themselves to writing the social and political history of the empire without a firm understanding of this important process.

This project aims to break the deadlock by taking a new approach. It starts from the fact that we know the mechanisms by which enfranchisement worked, such as service in the Roman army. For each mechanism, we can identify the key parameters that will have governed the rate of enfranchisement. In the case of the army, for example, these include the size of the army, the average length of service and survival rates. It is then a relatively straightforward matter to build a mathematical model that will calculate the progress of enfranchisement based on any given set of values for those key parameters. The challenge is how to deal with the fact that many of the parameters are themselves highly uncertain. The sheer number of uncertain variables involved in calculating the overall level of enfranchisement might seem to doom the analysis.

Estimating the likelihood of different outcomes for the level of enfranchisement by simulating thousands of possible scenarios
Estimating the likelihood of different outcomes for the level of enfranchisement by simulating thousands of possible scenarios

The solution is to borrow a technique from other fields with more sophisticated methods for managing uncertainty. Traditional modelling techniques in ancient history are deterministic, i.e. they produce a single ‘best estimate’ for the unknown quantity based on inputted most likely values for all the component parameters. More sophisticated approaches to uncertainty rely on stochastic models which allow all the parameters to vary simultaneously. Both inputs and outputs are expressed as probability distributions rather than discrete values. This makes it possible to estimate the likelihood of all possible levels of enfranchisement based on what we know about the key parameters driving the spread of citizenship. Preliminary analysis suggests that the range of likely values will turn out to be usefully narrow, so the approach promises to produce the first robust quantification of the progress of enfranchisement up to Caracalla’s grant.

The project draws on quantitative skills acquired during a previous career in business and finance and is an example of how an interdisciplinary perspective can offer new and powerful insights into old problems.

This project is supported by a Leverhulme Trust Research Fellowship.